Chapter 1

The Scientific Method

Units of Measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures and Calculations

Dimensional Analysis



Chapter 2 Atoms">

Chapter 1

The Scientific Method

Units of Measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures and Calculations

Dimensional Analysis



Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The Early History of Chemistry

Fundamental Chemical Laws

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom

The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction

Molecules and Ions

An Introduction to the Periodic Table

Naming Simple Compounds

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Atomic MassesThe Mole

Molar Mass

Percent Composition of Compounds

Determining the Formula of a Compound

Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations

Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products

Calculations Involving a Limiting reagent

Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Water, the Common Solvent

The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes

The Composition of Solutions

Types of Chemical Reactions: Part 1 – Part 2 – Part 3



Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions

Acid-Base Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations

Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations

Chapter 5 Gases


The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, Avogadro, and Gay-Lussac’s

Combined Gas Law

The Ideal Gas Law

Gas Stoichiometry

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure

The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

Effusion and Diffusion

Real Gases

Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

The Nature of Energy

Enthalpy and Calorimetry

Hess’s Law

Standard Enthalpies of Formation

Chapter 7 Atomic Structure and Periodicity

Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Matter

The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen

The Bohr Model

The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

Quantum Numbers

Orbital Shapes and Energies

Polyelectronic Atoms

The History of the Periodic Table

The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table

Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model

Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals

Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts


Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments

Ions: Electron Configurations and Size

Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds

Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds

The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model

Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions

The Localized Electron Bonding Model

Lewis Structures

Exceptions to the Octet Rule


Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model

Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals

Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model

Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids

Intermolecular Forces

The Liquid State

An Introduction to Structure and Types of Solids

Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids

Molecular Solids

Ionic Solids

Vapor Pressure and Change of State

Phase Diagrams

Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions

Solution Composition

The Energies of Solution Formation

Factors Affecting Solubility

The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

Chapter 12 Chemical Kinetics

Reaction Rates

Rate Laws: An Introduction

Determining the Form of the Rate Law

The Integrated Rate LawRate Laws: A SummaryReaction Mechanisms


Chapter 13 Chemical Equilibrium

The Equilibrium Condition

The Equilibrium Constant

Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Solving Equilibrium Problems

Le Chatelier’s Principle

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases

The Nature of Acids and Bases

Acid Strength

The pH Scale

Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions

Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions


Polyprotic Acids

Acid-Base Properties of Salts

The Effect of Structure on Acid-Base Properties

Acid-Base Properties of Oxides

The Lewis Acid-Base Model

Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary

Chapter 15 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

Acid-Base Equilibria

Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion

Buffered Solutions

Buffer Capacity

Titrations and pH curves

Acid-Base Indicators

Solubility Equilibria

Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product

Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis

Complex Ion Equilibria

Equilibria Involving Complex Ions

Chapter 16 Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy 

Spontaneous Processes and Entropy

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Effect of Temperature and Spontaneity

Free Energy

Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions

Free Energy and Chemical Reactions

The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure

Free Energy and Equilibrium

Free Energy and Work

Chapter 17 Electrochemistry

Galvanic Cells

Standard Reduction Potentials

Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy

Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration




Commercial Electrolytic Processes


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